Waste Water Treatment Using Cassia Gum Powder

With every passing day, water is becoming a scaring resource. Water pollution, drought, and flood, etc. all are contributing factors to the poor quality of this natural resource. Increasing the population on land increases consumption and other human activities pollute it simultaneously. Thus pollution control and treating the water has become a compelling need for civilization in order to sustain a longer stay on the earth.

Cassia and its Gum Powder

Cassia obtusifolia is the plant that is used to manufacture cassia gum powder from its seeds. Cassia gum powder refers to the flour obtained from the endosperm of the caddis seeds. Cassia seeds can be further divided into two parts which are called Cassia splits. Cassia gum has 75% polysaccharide as its constituents with a molecular weight ranging between 200,000 to 300,000 Dalton. Polysaccharide in this gum is typically a galactomannan with mannose and galactose in the ratio of 5:1.
Cassia Gum has seen its wide applications in the food industry as a thickening or gelling agent. It is used as a pet feed too. Several other applications include foam stabilizers, emulsifiers or texturing agents.

Cassia seeds are dried and in process, cassia splits are obtained. The seeds undergo heat treatment to remove the moisture after which they are ground, polished and sieved to remove any coarse particles. This whole chain of the procedure is called Dehusking. Sieving separates the endosperm layer from the germ is later on crumbled to form a pale yellow colored powder known as Cassia Gum Powder.

cassia gum powder

Solving the issue of Waste Water

Wastewater treatment is a series of processes and flocculation is one such stepping stone in this. It is a chemical treatment to remove larger suspended impurities from the water. A chemical agent often called as a coagulant is added and due to this fine particles clump to form a large floc and thus is removed from the water after this stage. A conventional process uses alum and now it can be easily replaced by Cassia Gum Powder. The addition of this powder into the wastewater speeds up the coagulation and increases the efficiency of the treatment plant. It also ensures to neutralize the charged particles present in the water.

Another major role it plays in wastewater management is of a flocculant. It removes the substantial amount of turbidity from the water before it is allowed to discharge in the water bodies. In this way it removes pollutants like large suspended particles, turbid substances from the water. It also enhances the pH of the treated water, which may further aid in making the water potable again. Researchers have been conducting experiments to prove that the Cassia Gum Powder has the potential to unleash Iron and Magnesium concentrations in the water.  These water enhancing properties have made it suitable for use across India and South-East Asian countries for tremendous benefits.

The Concluding Statement

Altrafine Gums, one of the leading natural gum and derivatives manufacturing companies has been serving the needs of the industries for around three decades. The company’s foreseeable vision and a huge investment in futuristic innovation have guided its way to the pinnacle of success.

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Treating Diabetes with Fenugreek Gum Powder

Diabetes is both a lifestyle as well as a genetic disease. Whatever may be the contributing reason, this disease is rampantly engulfing the world’s population. In 2018 around 500 million people were diagnosed with Diabetes worldwide and is estimated to accelerate in the coming years. So it has become a must to keep a check on our health and dietary necessities. People often tend to adapt a natural and ayurvedic therapy, which has lesser side effects than the allopathic medicines. One such natural treatment is Fenugreek seeds.

All About Fenugreek

Fenugreek more commonly known as methi in Indian culture has been a routine spice to be used in our diet. It is used as a herb, spice, medicine, vegetable, etc. There is a peculiar smell in this plant and it is due to the presence of a chemical called Sotolon.

In Indian subcontinent cuisines, Turkish, Iranian and several other cuisines, fenugreek seeds observe a lot of culinary usage. It has a high calorific value and is a rich source of energy, microminerals, and vitamins. It is used in treating symptoms of several diseases like Eczema, Diabetes, Indigestion, stomach ailments, etc.

fenugreek gum powder and fenugreek seeds

Fenugreek Gum powder is obtained by heating and dehusking the fenugreek seeds which are orange to golden in colour. The seeds are rectangular in shape and have two endosperms in it. The endosperm is constituted of galactose and mannose in a 1:1 ratio. This type of constitution makes it easily soluble even in cold water. The powder thus obtained via the mechanical process is yellowish in color.

Fenugreek Seeds Benefits in Treating Diabetes

Fenugreek seeds scientifically named as Trigonella foenum graecum are rich in soluble fibers. These fibers have the potency to lower down the blood sugar level by slowing the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates in the body.  This implicates that it may be effective in treating people with diabetes.

Soluble fibers including galactomannan fibers present in fenugreek gum powder delay the intestinal absorption of Carbohydrates or sugars. To add to these, the alkaloids like Fenugrecin and Trigonelline have indicated explicit hypoglycemic action reducing the blood sugar level. The presence of 4-Hydroxyisoleucine, a type of amino acid, acts on the pancreas to fasten the secretion of insulin, which in turn helps to regulate the sugar level.

Research conducted to prove diabetes benefits

Multiple studies have been conducted to investigate the anti-diabetic benefits of fenugreek seeds. Several clinical trials have shown that these seeds have the power to regulate the blood glucose level and also enhance the glucose tolerance.
According to one study, researchers in India have found that upon addition of  100 grams of defatted fenugreek gum powder to the daily intake or diet of Type 1 diabetes patients significantly elevated their fasting blood glucose levels, improved glucose tolerance and also lowered total cholesterol, and triglycerides.

The Bottom Line

Altrafine Gums, a natural gum synthesizer and supplier of several types of natural gums, headquartered in the Gujarat state of India, has established itself in the domestic as well as International decades for around three decades. Best in class infrastructure, reliable products and massive product range in every segment has been the statement of success for this company.

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Refined Cassia Gum Powder as a Fat Substitute

Cassia gum powder has a large number of applications in industries stretching from food, cosmetics, textiles, paper to mining and others. It is one of the major contributors to the texture and feel of the products that we stumble across every day. The structure of the cassia powder imparts it numerous properties that make it one of the key ingredients in a wide array of industries. Guar gum is used as a thickening, binding, stabilizing, hydrating, binding agent. It is also preferred for application as an emulsifier and possesses the ability to be used in various formulations.

Properties of Refined Cassia Gum Powder

Refined cassia gum powder is nothing but a galactomannan polysaccharide having a high molecular weight. It has the ability to form viscoelastic gels with xanthan gum. The refined cassia powder is a free-flowing one without any presence of the lumps. Hence, it exhibits excellent solubility in water as it hydrates at  85°C, thus forming a low viscosity solution. Refined cassia gum powder conforms to the EEC standard E427 and that makes it felicitous for being used as an ingredient in food formulations.

The moisture content in the refined powder of cassia gum can maximum go up to 12% with pH value ranging from 6.5 to 7.5. In addition to that, the acid-insoluble matter and the acid content can only achieve a maximum value of 1.5%. Refined cassia gum powder also shows traces of protein content that can go up to 7%.

Basic Biological Nature and Impact on Industrial Usage of Cassia Tora Gum Powder

Applications of Refined Cassia Gum Powder

A wide variety of food applications include its usage in ham and sausages for gelling and texturizing, fat stabilizer and replacer in cheese spreads, yogurts, and ice-creams, stabilizer and gelling agent for meat and vegetable spreads, thickening agent in sauces and ketchup, water binding agent in the bakery, etc. Cassia gum powder has always been considered as a much cheaper alternative to the locust bean gum. It is also believed to reduce the content of kappa carrageenan in the already available recipe.

Refined Cassia Gum Powder as Fat Substitute

The modern demographic is getting health conscious with every day and hence they keep a check on their consumption of fat. They continuously look for low-fat content alternatives that will prove to be quite healthy to consume as a part of their dietary plan. Refined cassia gum powder is used as a fat substitute in cheese manufacturing. The main area of concern regarding cheese products is syneresis or weeping. Cassia gum powder helps in preventing this phenomenon by performing water phase management and also improves the texture of the product. It is used in soft cheese products and thus enhances the yield of curd solids. Additionally, the addition of refined cassia gum powder also results in providing a softer curve to the soft cheese items with their whey separated. Cassia powder has an advantage in producing low fat cheese products as it does not lead to much change in the rheology and texture of the lowe fat cheese products as compared to its counterpart, high-fat cheese products. Even in certain meat products, the addition of refined cassia gum powder leads to the prevention of fat migration when they are stored.

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Fenugreek Gum Powder Review of Important Secondary Phytochemicals

The fenugreek plant is well adaptable to a wide range of atmospheric conditions, temperatures and soils and therefore it is adaptable to different habitats. The plant grows in more than 20 countries around the Asia continent, Europe, Africa and America.

Fenugreek Gum Powder

The fenugreek gum powder is extracted from the fenugreek seeds. The seeds are rectangular to oval in shape, dirty orange to golden color and they have two endosperms which are galactomanans in nature. The powder is obtained from the milled endosperm of these seeds. It is a unique galactomannan with a high rate of galactose substitution since the mannose to galactose ratio is 1:1. This makes it have more solubility in cold water compared to other galactomanans.

The fenugreek gum powder is obtained through a series of mechanical processes including;

  1. Washing and hydrating the splits
  2. Flaking using roller mills to obtain better solubility
  3. Drying
  4. Grinding
  5. Separation; done using sifters of 100 mesh,200 mesh and 300 mesh.
  6. Blending and packaging.


fenugreek gum powder and fenugreek seeds

Phytochemicals of Fenugreek Gum Powder

The main chemicals contained in the fenugreek gum powder are the galactomannans, steroidal sapogenins and isoleucine.

Recently, studies have been conducted that highlight the biological and therapeutic properties of the fenugreek plant. These are attributed to several active secondary metabolites present in the plant including alkaloids, flavanoids, steroids, and saponins. The presence of phytochemicals called diosgenin and steroidal saponins are seen to be the main contributors for the plant being used in the productions of steroidal hormones.

The alkaloids together with other volatile compounds are responsible for the bitter taste and characteristic aroma of fenugreek. It is also a significant source of vitamin B, iron, silicon, sodium, protein, amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fiber.  The fenugreek gum powder is also rich in soluble fiber, mucilage and the galactomannan that affect the uptake of bile salts and starch absorption.

The fenugreek plant is also a good source of antioxidants. Research has also reported that fenugreek fiber creates a satiety feeling in the body, has an effect on the blood glucose, insulin response and energy intake. The fenugreek fiber has also been observed to bind to and eliminate carcinogens in the intestines.

Diosgenin

This is the most important of all the secondary metabolites found from the fenugreek gum powder. It has been found to have estrogenic activity and is also the most bioactive of the phytochemicals in the plant extracts. In industrial manufacturing, the compound is the active ingredient enabling large scale production of steroidal drugs and hormones such as testosterone, norethisterone, glucocorticoids and progesterone. It has also been seen to exhibit anti-cancer and anti-aging activities as well as cardioprotective and contraceptive action.

Other Industrial Applications of Fenugreek Gum Powder

Due to the effect of the fenugreek gum powder on the viscosity of fluids, it has gained various industrial applications in the food industry whereby it aids in texturization of baked goods, moisture retention and thickener in sauces. It also acts as a stabilizer in frozen products. The fenugreek gum powder is used as a food ingredient, flavoring agent, herb and spice.

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Cassia Powder: Review on Ethnobotany and Phytochemical Profiles for Future Development

Cassia powder is derived from the cassia tora plant. This is small annual herb that grows as a common weed in the Asian countries and found throughout India. The plant extract is most famous for use in traditional medicines to cure various disease as well as emerging industrial applications.

The cassia plant is a well known ayurvedic medicine plant acting as a laxative, expectorant, action on cardiac diseases liver tonic and many other conditions.

The cassia powder is derived from the grounded and purified endosperm of the seeds of cassia tora plant. Seeds are de husked and degermed through thermal and mechanical treatment followed by milling and screening of the endosperm , further purification is done using isopropanol and the end product is an off white fine cassia powder.

cassia gum powder

Phytochemistry in Cassia Powder

The medicinal value of the cassia powder extract is due to the Phytochemicals present in the seeds that produce definite physiological action to the human body. These bioactive compounds are alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponins, glycosides, proteins, tannins, phenols, anthraquinones, terpenoids and many others.

Ongoing scientific researches on the cassia powder suggest huge biological potential of the plant. Studies on the Phytochemicals and biological properties of the extracts show enough evidence for therapeutic value.  The efficacy of the phytochemicals from the cassia is affected by the geographical locations where the plant occurs and extraction techniques.

Phytochemical Action

Antioxidant Activity: the methanolic extracts from the seeds shows strong antioxidant with the phenolic active ingredient being alaternin.

Antibacterial effects: these are brought about by the presence of phenolic glycoside and their aglycones and have been seen to have effects on E.Coli and other pseudomonas strains as well as some strains of staphylococcus.

Anthelmintic Activity: this has been shown due to the presence of flavanoids in the cassia gum extract. This action has been seen against Pheretima Posthuma and ascardia galli species.

Other Properties of Cassia Powder

The cassia gum powder is comprised of 75% polysaccharide with a ratio of mannose to galactose of about 5:1.these results are obtained from sugar analysis tests using the high performance liquid chromatography procedure. It has fewer galactose molecules next to the mannose chain. This has a significant effect on the synergy of food grade cassia powder with other anionic food gums like the carrageenan or Xanthan gum. This translates to lesser amounts of cassia powder being required for gelling effect, as to when the carrageenan is used alone.

Some of the applications in foods include emulsifying, stabilizing, thickening, gelling and water retention properties.  The foods processed using cassia powder includes cheeses, frozen dairy desserts, meat products and manufacturing of poultry products.

With the increasing shift towards use of natural based chemicals for food and therapeutic purposes, the cassia powder economic potential grows every day. The traditional medicinal value of the cassia gum as herbal remedy has stimulated further research on the phytochemicals of the plant and active ingredients of economic importance. More clinical and pharmacological studies with standardized extracts are needed to uncover the unexploited potential of the cassia gum plant in the food and pharmaceutical industry.

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Research and Development on the Guar Gum Value Chain for Food Industry

With a high year to year variation in production and exports of the guar gum and derivatives, there is need for closer review of the whole value chain to identify priority areas where focus can be directed. Guar gum is used in the food and bakery industry since a good number of food stuffs and food related product compositions require the usage of colloids to alter the behavior of water compared to other components. The guar gum is an effective stabilizer, binder, thickener and water proofing agent in various food products.

Sector Wise Applications of Guar Gum

The sector wise application of guar shows that the food industry consumes approximately 25 – 30 % of guar gum produced from India, 60% of the production is up taken by petroleum and mining industries while the remaining 10 – 15% is up taken by the textile industry. Over 80% of the global guar production and export comes from India in the form of refined splits, gum powder and guar meals.

guar gum powder from india

Emerging Issues and Constraints Related to Guar Gum Powder

Production Technologies

There have been a number of technologies developed for improved production of the guar gum. These include improved seed varieties, better / improved planting methods, better agronomical practices, soil fertility management, moisture conservation and other quality aspects. It has been shown from research that adoption of line sowing method enhances grain yield by over 35%.

Production in Non-Traditional Areas and Seasons

Cultivation has now been transferred to regions where it was not done previously in India. These new areas have potential for better moisture conservation and have been able to produce over 1800kg/ha of grain yield.

Dissemination of Technology

Most producers lack the knowledge of the emerging technologies in guar production and processing. This constraint is also attributed to lacking financial resources to access information.

High Gum Content and Varied Viscosity Levels

There is little variation in the gum content among the various guar varieties which ranges from 29 – 30% only. There is need for this content to be increased to about 35% which will increase the guar gum yield and the ultimate profitability of the crop. This can be achieved through more biotechnological research aimed at acceleration of gum content and viscosity.

Constraints and Development Opportunities of Guar Gum

  • Growth period: Currently, the available varieties of guar gum mature in 90 days. There is need for developing early maturing varieties. Research shows that the S. Serrata, a wild guar species can be used as a source for earliness in the guar crop.
  • Plant type Improvement: there is ongoing research on producing crops with less biomass and more reproductive area, as well as crops that will achieve greater synchronization of flowering for greater grain yields.
  • Improved gum quality for specific applications: Guar gum for food manufacturing requires high gum content and should also have good viscosity.

Production of odorless and tasteless guar for food and feeds applications can also be a key area of research. For gelling applications, depletion of the galactose molecules can also be an area of innovation.

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Phytochemical Constituents of Cassia Gum that Have Changed Lives

It is estimated that a high percentage of people living in the developing countries rely on various forms of traditional medicines for primary health care needs. The medicinal properties of these plants have made a great contribution in the development of traditional herbal therapies. The cassia gum contains a wide variety of phyto-pharmaceuticals that have become very important in various industries such as agriculture, human and vetinary medicines.

It is believed that herbal medicines have lesser side effects and less costly compared to the allopathic medicine. The cassia tora plant is well known for its extracts having high laxative and purgative purposes. The cassia gum powder is always utilized in research for its photochemistry and pharmacological properties ranging from anti – diabetic action to anti viral activity in the body. The powder has been reported in ancient ayurvedic literatures against skin diseases such as ring worms, eczema and scabies.

Cassia Gum

Phytochemical Constituents of Cassia Gum

Some of the important Phytochemicals of the cassia tora seeds include the cinnamaldehyde, gum, tannins, mannitol, coumarins pinene and eugenol. The leaves and seeds have been found to have laxative, antiperiodic, anthelmintic, ophthalmic, liver tonic, cardio tonic and expectorant properties. The chemicals have also been found to have anti leprosy activity, anti flatulence, anti bronchitis effect and high anti cough effects.

In the sub continent of India, the cassia plant extracts are used as natural pesticides in farms operating organic farming techniques.

Life Changing Cassia Gum Powder Medication on Malaria Parasites

In a detailed research on the Phytochemicals of the cassia tora plant, the cassia gum powder extract, processed through various chemically advanced methods also showed the presence of Glycosides and Saponins. The cassia gum powder extracted from the cassia tora plant showed to have strong larvicidal activity against the Anopheles stephensi mosquito species. The maximum action has been shown to occur when the alcoholic extraction method is used for the active ingredient in the cassia gum.

Tablet Binder Properties of Cassia Gum Powder

There is a lot of research going on for the usage of the cassia powder in the process of tablet binding during tablet manufacturing. This is due to the presence of the gluco-mannose chemicals on the seeds of the plant. The dried and coarse powder seeds of the cassia tora show a high percentage of mucilage that is useful in the tablet binding process. Furthermore the data shows that the mucilage has a favorable PH of 5.6 – 6.5, that has no effect on the gastro intestinal tract and the gum is suitable for use in uncoated tablets.

Other Functional Uses

The processed cassia gum galactomanan has important differences from other related galactomanans. The presence of a high number of galactose side chains prevents the synergistic gelling effects with other anionic polymers. Due to this fact, a smaller amount of the hydrocolloid blend of cassia gum is required to achieve similar effect, compared to when carrageenan alone is used. This translates to high savings on cost when large scale manufacturing is done.

As a result of this, the cassia gum powder has gained popularity in food industries such as in the manufacturing of cheeses, frozen dairy desserts, meat products such as salads and sandwiches and in the making of poultry products.

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Guar Gum Derivatives Manufacturing and Marketing for Industrial Usage

Guar gum derivatives are high valued products obtained through chemical engineering processes and chemical reactions to enhance the action of the guar molecules in various industrial processes.

The petroleum industry is the biggest consumer of the various guar gum powder derivatives. With the deepening oil and gas wells, the conditions for oil and gas extraction have become more demanding in respect to pressure, temperatures, Ph levels and other conditions. The stability of the guar gum is critical with these conditions and development of stable derivatives is important.

Manufacturing Guar Gum Powder Derivatives

Modification by chemical reaction is the most widely used process in manufacturing of guar gum powder derivatives. These processes include;

  • Carboxymethylation of guar gum

Research has shown that carboxymethylation improves the properties of crude guar gum. Its usage is very important in the hydraulic fracturing process due to the resulting high viscosity of the aqueous solution and the ability to reversibly cross link the material. The resulting single derivative is called carboxy methyl guar (GMG) and has high industrial demand. Double derivative of guar gum has also been produced called carboxy methyl hydroxyl propyl guar (CMHPG) for industrial usage.

  • Cross linked guar gum

Dialdehyde cross linking guar gum is blend using phosphorus oxychloride, sodium periodate and ethanol. Cross linking of the guar gum also reduces the viscosity and swelling power of the guar gum from the increased molecular weight and cross linkages formation.

guar gum

Modification of Guar Gum through Mechanical Processes

Normal manufacturing of guar gum powder is a mechanical process where guar splits are made through conventional milling process and converted to a fine 200 mesh powder.

  • Slow hydrating guar gum: Guar splits are grinded in coarse particle size and reduced prehydration, and higher pore sieves to achieve coarser powder with dehydrating properties.
  • Fast hydrating guar gum: In this stage, prehydrated over swelled guar splits are grind to fine particle size to achieve fast hydrating properties.
  • Hydrophobically modified guar gum: This is a new development in guar gum derivatization that resulted to a new category called hydrophobically modified polysaccharides (HMPS). This class of polymers possesses both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts. It has been observed that the HMPS are very efficient viscosifier of aqueous media.

Industrial Importance of Guar Gum

The synthesized guar derivatives have extraordinary features. When compared to the parent polymer, the low viscosity of the grafted guars makes them less damaging to the underground formations.

In addition to the oil and gas extraction industry, guar gum powder and guar derivatives have applications in the paint and ink manufacturing. They may work as dispersants and thinning agents due to ability to lower viscosity and reduce the shear thinning. Synthesis of surfactants can also be done from the hydrophobic modified products of carboxy methyl guar.

Conclusion

The guar gum powder has numerous physical and chemical properties that make it a suitable product in various industries. The chemical structure allows it to be modified to obtain derivatives of desirable properties that are much less expensive, bio degradable and eco friendly.

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Critical Review of Guar Gum Powder and SWOT Analysis

The Global guar gum exports continue to grow rapidly with the biggest importer being to the United States of America. Other major importers include Canada, Europe and other nations. In terms of production, the sub continent of India is the largest producer of the guar gum, contributing approximately 80% of the total world production. This is closely followed by Pakistan making approximately 15% of the total production.

Guar Gum Powder Processing

The guar seed has three important parts that contribute to making of the guar gum powder. These are the seed coat, the endosperm and the germ. The guar gum which is the prime and marketable processed product from the guar seed is derived from the endosperm. The polished endosperm is separated from the fibrous material to obtain the Guar splits. The refined splits are pulverized and treated in several stages to obtain the guar gum powder. The gum is further refined to make yellowish white powder.

Important Properties of Guar Gum

The properties of the guar gum powder that make it useful for various applications include;

  • Good solubility in cold and hot water
  • Film formation properties
  • Has resistance to oils, greases and solvents
  • It is a good thickening agent
  • Water binding capacity
  • High viscosity
  • Ability to function at low temperatures

The commercially important end products of the guar gum powder include the hydroxyl alkylated guar gum, oxidized guar gum, acetates of guar gum, sulphated guar gum, cationic derivatives of guar gum, guar gum acrylamide and reticulated guar gum.

guar gum powder

SWOT Analysis

Strengths

  • Approximately 80% production is India hence good economies of scale
  • The guar crop is drought tolerant, and sun loving hence suited to the semi arid growing conditions.
  • Multiple functions and industrial uses of the guar gum powder
  • Demand is always rising due to industrial use in the hydraulic fracturing process of oil shale gas production.
  • By products , the guar meal korma has important uses in the animal feed industry
  • 90 % of the product is exported to other countries mainly for the oil shale gas exploration; hence there is a ready market for the guar gum powder.

Weaknesses

  • Community level organizations have poor participation in the value chain; hence maximum benefits go to the traders, processors, speculators and exporters.
  • Community processing systems are absent, and most processing done by private processors.
  • The business has high involvement of speculators who control the trade.
  • Producer income is low due to many intermediaries.
  • No grading at the farm leaves producers at the mercies of buyers.

Opportunities

  • Government subsidies to farm inputs will lead to reduced cost of production and more profits to the farmers.
  • Establishment of farmer led processing facilities, packing, storage and transport systems leads to greater returns to the farmer.
  • More uses are emerging for the guar gum powder, hence growing business opportunities.

Threats

  • Presence of substitutes for the guar gum powder in the hydraulic fracturing process negatively affects the total sales of guar gum powder.
  • Adverse climatic conditions affect the crop production and yields
  • Poor farm gate prices may affect farmer s interest in farming the crop.

Conclusion

The guar gum supply chain remains stable and is set to continue growing as more and more industrial uses emerge.

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Safety and Efficacy of Cassia Gum for the Pet Food Industry

The cassia obtusifolia, also referred to as cassia tora is a weed crop plant belonging to the Caesalpinaceae family. The plant mostly occurs in India, Nepal, china, Pakistan, Afganistan, mynmar and may also be found in Bhutan. The product is manufactured through grinding the cassia tora seeds. It is now a recognized food additive containing repeating units of galactose and mannose in a ratio of 5:1 respectively.

Currently, the Indian sub continent is the biggest manufacturer and exporter of the cassia gum powder. The powder is increasing in demand across the globe due to increasing applications in the food and feed industry as well as the beverage industry.

Cassia gum is currently authorized in feed with moisture content less than 12% as an emulsifying and stabilizing agent, thickener and gelling agent. The gum is also authorized for similar technological purposes in some food stuffs such as edible ice; dairy based desserts, fermented milk products, cheese, dressings and dehydrated soups.

According to the European food safety authority (EFSA) the cassia gum is used in combination with other gelling agents such as the kappa- carrageenan or the Xanthan gum during manufacture of the pet foods.

Thickening and Gelling Agent of cassia tora for Canned mammal feed

Anthraquinones content

The cassia gum is recognized to contain anthraquinones in it. This is a group of functional and diverse aromatic chemicals that are structurally related to anthracene, and has a parent structure 9, 10-dioxoanthracene. They occur naturally in the cassia species in free glycone and glycosylated forms.

The introduction of purification steps in production of cassia gum has resulted in considerable reduction in the anthraquinones concentration. The use of more specific analytical methods such as the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has enabled separation of individual anthraquinones. This has helped in better purification procedures to be developed. The specifications of cassia gum food additive allow a maximum content of total anthraquinones at 0.5mg/kg which is at the detection limit.

Stability and Homogeneity

Cassia gum powder is used as a food additive in combination with other gums in order to obtain the optimal gelling and stability. Research was conducted on the stability of the gel over a period of three months for canned dog food and showed no significant losses of gel strength.

Bio Availability

The anthraquinones present in the cassia gum are considered to be poorly bio available and hence minimal side effects to pet animals. It is also thought that where a fraction is absorbed, they undergo liver oxidative and conjugative bio transformation and finally excreted by the body.

Efficacy

Research has been done on the efficacy of the cassia gum powder, by studying the gel strength values of the complete canned dog food. It was observed after three months of storage that the products remains stable and it has no effect on other product ingredients hence remains very effective.

Safety to Pet Animals

Research has concluded that only semi refined cassia gum that meets specifications of cassia gum as a pet food additive should be used in the manufacturing of pet foods. The maximum allowable content should also be maintained as 13200 mg/kg complete feed.

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