Chemical Structure and Physical Properties of Cassia GumCassia gum is comprised of at least 75% high molecular weight (approximately 200,000-300,000) polysaccharide consisting primarily of a linear chain of 1,4-β-D-mannopyranose units with 1,6 linked α- D-galactopyranose units. The ratio of mannose to galactose is about 5:1. The composition of saccharides is: mannose (77.2-78.9%), galactose (15.7-14.7%) and glucose (7.1-6.3%). Like most polysaccharides, the following formula applies: (C6H10O5)n.H2O. Cassia gum is related to carob bean gum, tara gum andguar gum in terms of structure and chemical properties.
- Cassia gum is approved for use in Europe by the Commission Directive (EEC No. E 499) and is listed in the Annex of the Council Directive (70/524/EEC) as a stabilizer (thickening and gelling agent) in the manufacture of canned pet foods (for cats and dogs).
- It is also approved for use in Japan and is listed as a food additive in The Ministry of Health and Welfare Announcement No. 160 (10 August 1995).
- A panel of experts in the areas of toxicology, pharmacology and food science was assembled to review the safety of cassia gum for use as a thickening agent in human and pet foods in the United States.
- The available data on cassia gum and structurally related gums demonstrate a lack of toxic effects in animals. This review is the basis for the consideration of cassia gum as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under conditions of its intended use as a thickening agent in human and pet foods.
- Abbreviations: FFDCA, Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; GRAS, generally recognized as safe; NTP, National Toxicology Program; OECD, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development; PADI, possible average daily intake
- United States TSCA
- Canada NDSL
- Korea ECL
- Australia AICS
- Europe EINECS
Gel (synergy) with Carrageenan or Xanthan GumCassia gum forms firm, thermoplastic gels with carrageenan. As the level of cassia gum is increased, the gel strength of carrageenan solutions is also increase. Cassia gum and carrageenan gel is stable due to the excellent retorting stability of cassia gum. Cassia gum and xanthan gum, on their own, do not have the ability to form gels. But cassia gum combined with xanthan gum, aqueous dispersions of cassia gum form cohesive, elastic gels. As with carrageenan, cassia is more efficient at forming gels with xanthan gum than other galactomannans, enabling lower total hydrocolloid levels in finished formulations. This is due to the unique branched polysaccharide galactose/mannose structure of cassia gum. Cassia gum is manufactured from the endosperm of Senna obtusifolia or Cassia obtusifolia or Cassia Tora or Cassia Occidentalis). It is mainly used as a thickener and gelling agent in foods and pet foods. Cassia grows mainly in subtropical regions and is grows mostly wild and occasionally cultivated. Cassia Gum is comprised of at least 75% polysaccharide consisting primarily of a linear backbone chain of mannose with side galactose units The ratio of Mannose : Galactose is about 5: 1. Cassia gum, like LBG can form gels with other colloids like Carrageenan and Xanthan and is therefore used in the manufacture of gels in the food and pet food applications in combination of other colloids. Translation of cassia Gum in different languages for the better understanding of our global clients:-
|French||Gomme de cassia|
|Portuguese||Goma de cassia|
|Romanian||Guma de cassia|
Splitting the Cassia Tora SeedsThe seed consists of an outer husk, an endosperm (cassia tora split) and the ovary or germ. Only the endosperm or split, which contains mainly polysaccharides, is used for the production of the cassia gum. Both husk and germ are removed in the de-husking and splitting process. The impact of the splitting procedure is that both husk and germ are loosened from the endosperm and made brittle by heating and can be removed in the subsequent purification procedure after pulverization. The split (endosperm), however, remains intact at these temperatures. Due to its much greater particle size, the split can be separated from husk and germ particles through a couple of physical cleaning steps. The splitting procedure starts with roasting of the seeds. All seeds are heated for several minutes. During the roasting process the endosperm (split) remains intact and flexible, while husk and germ, which are more sensitive to heat, become brittle. Mechanical stress pulverizes husk and germ and the powder is separated from the intact split by sieving. Remaining traces of husk and germ on the split particles are finally removed through a series of physical cleaning steps.
Method of Manufacturing Cassia Gum Powder:The seeds are dehusked and de-germed by milling and screening of the endosperm. Cassia Gum is high molecular weight (approximately 200,000 – 300,000) polysaccharides composed of galactomannans; the mannose:galactose ratio is about 5:1. Semi-refined Cassia gum normally containing detectable amounts of anthraquinones. The raw material seed is subject to different mechanical cleaning steps in order to remove other impurities, such as, farm waste, undeveloped seeds and stones. After cleaning raw material is subject to a de-husking and splitting process. Thermal and mechanical treatment removing husk and germ from the seeds resulting in splits. Finally the splits are ground to a uniform small particle size powder.
Chemical Structure and Physical Properties of Cassia Gum
- Cassia gum is hot water soluble and requires heating to fully solubilise and reach full viscosity in aqueous solutions.
- Cassia Gum is comprised of at least 75 % polysaccharide consisting primarily of a linear chain of 1,4-β-D-mannopyranose units with 1,6 linked α-D-alactopyranose units.
- The ratio of mannose to galactose is about 5:1.
- Cassia gum forms firm thermoplastic gels with carrageenan.
- Cassia gum and xanthan gum, on their own, do not have the ability to form gels. But cassia gum combined with xanthan gum, aqueous dispersions of cassia gum form cohesive, elastic gels.
- Cassia is known as one of the best gelling agent, thickening additives, emulsifying additives and stabilizing additives.
Cassia Gum Powder Number
|CAS No. of Cassia Gum Powder (Galactomannan)||11078-30-1|
|INS NO for Cassia Gum Powder||427|
|EINECS No. of Cassia Gum Powder||234-299-6|
|EEC No. of Cassia Gum Powder||E499|
Cassia Tora Powder international listings
|Korea||KE – 17406|
Gelling properties of refined cassia gum powder:Refined Cassia gum is a high number of galactose side chains prohibit the synergistic gelling effect with anionic polymers. As a result, a smaller amount of hydrocolloid blend containing cassia gum is needed in a food product to achieve the same effect as with carrageenan alone or blends of carrageenan with other related galactomannans.
Cassia Gum is mainly used as a:
- Gelling Agent
- Bonding agent